Category Archives: WebSocketServer

Multiprocessing with the WebSocketServer

After spending way to much time thinking about exactly how to do it, I have got multiprocessing working with the WebSocketServer.

I have learned some interesting things about multiprocessing with Python:

  • Basically no complicated objects can be sent over queues.
  • Since pickle is used to send the objects, the object must also be serializable
  • Methods (i.e. callbacks) cannot be sent either
  • Processes can’t have new queues added after the initial creation since they aren’t picklable, so when the process is created, it has to be given its queues and that’s all the queues its ever going to get

So the new model for operation is as follows:

WebSocketServer Diagram

WebSocketServer Diagram

Sadly, because of the lack of ability to share methods between processes, there is a lot of polling going on here. A lot. The service has to poll its queues to see if any clients or packets have come in, the server has to poll all the client socket queues to see if anything came in from them and all the service queues to see if the services want to send anything to the clients, etc. I guess it was a sacrifice that had to be made to be able to use multiprocessing. The advantage gained now is that services have access to their own interpreter and so they aren’t all forced to share the same CPU. I would imagine this would improve performance with more intensive servers, but the bottleneck will still be with the actual sending and receiving to the clients since every client on the server still has to share the same thread.

So now, the plan to proceed is as follows:

  • Figure out a way to do a pre-forked server so that client polling can be done by more than one process
  • Extend the built in classes a bit to simplify service creation and to make it a bit more intuitive.

As always, the source is available at

Making a WebSocket server

For the past few weeks I have been experimenting a bit with HTML5 WebSockets. I don’t normally focus only on software when building something, but this has been an interesting project and has allowed me to learn a lot more about the nitty gritty of sockets and such. I have created a github repository for it (it’s my first time using git and I’m loving it) which is here:

The server I have runs on a port which is considered a dedicated port for WebSocket-based services. The server is written in python and defines a few base classes for implementing a service. The basic structure is as follows:

Super-basic flowchart

Each service has its own thread and inherits from a base class which is a thread plus a queue for accepting new clients. The clients are a socket object returned by socket.accept which are wrapped in a class that allows for communication to the socket via queues. The actual communication to sockets is managed by a separate thread that handles all the encoding and decoding to websocket frames. Since adding a client doesn’t produce much overhead, this structure potentially could be expanded very easily to handle many many clients.

A few things I plan on adding to the server eventually are:

  • Using processes instead of threads for the services. Due to the global interpreter lock, if this is run using CPython (which is what most people use as far as I know and also what comes installed by default on many systems) all the threads will be locked to use the same CPU since the python interpreter can’t be used by more than one thread at once (however, it can for processes). The difficult part of all this is that it is hard to pass actual objects between processes and I have to do some serious re-structuring for the code to work without needing to pass objects (such as sockets) to services.
  • Creating a better structure for web services (currently only two base classes are really available) including a generalized database binding that is thread safe so that a service could potentially split into many threads while not overwhelming the database connection.

Currently, the repository includes a demo chatroom service for which I should have the client side application done soon and uploaded. Currently it supports multiple chatrooms and multiple users, but there is no authentication really and there are a few features I would like to add (such as being able to see who is in the chatroom).